Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Downs Syndrome

I won’t rewrite the basic information about Downs Syndrome here, there are others who have done it better than I can and I am linking to them.

What you will find here are links to information and best practice treatment. A couple of the links are written specifically for Autism; however, I have included them because the basic principles are very similar. Currently there is more information about the behavioral treatment of Autism than Downs; however, there is some information specific to Downs and there is a great deal of medical information available.
Unfortunately there are a number of medical conditions which are frequently concurrent with Downs Syndrome. You will also find medical information linked from this posting.

Supplemental Materials:

National Down Syndrome Society

What is Down Syndrome? What Causes It?
Down Syndrome (Mayo Clinic)

Downs Syndrome Medical Issues

Down syndrome: Medline Plus

What are the Medical Problems Associated with Down Syndrome?

Benefits to Down's syndrome children through training their mothers.
This study investigated the hypothesis that training of mothers with Down's syndrome children would be beneficial both to the child and parents. The mothers were taught behaviour modification techniques based on learning theory and were given group discussions on dealing with their family or personal problems. The subjects were 16 mothers with a Down's syndrome child, divided into two groups on the basis of their child's sex and chronological and mental ages. The Griffiths Scale was used for assessment. The mothers in the treatment group received 12 sessions of training and group counseling over a 6-month period, whereas the control mothers received no additional attention except the usual routine from the general practitioner and health visitor. The result show clear gains to both the child and mother in the treatment group. The child improved, especially in language development as well as in the other areas, and the mother-gained more confidence and competence in her daily management of the child.

A Longitudinal Study of Children with Down Syndrome Who Experienced Early Intervention Programming

Effectiveness of early intervention for children with Down syndrome
This article reviews studies evaluating the effectiveness of early intervention for children with Down syndrome. Evaluation of early intervention programs is difficult and challenging, given the wide variety of experimental designs and the limitations of research studies. Overall, however, positive changes were seen in the development of children who were exposed to early intervention programs. Children with Down syndrome and their families are likely to benefit from early intervention.

Family Stress and Adjustment as Perceived by Parents of Children with Autism or Down Syndrome: Implications for Intervention
This study examined stress and adjustment in parents of three groups of families: those with an autistic child, those with a Down syndrome child, and those with only developmentally normal children. A total of 54 families participated, with 18 representing each group. Parents of autistic children generally reported more family stress and adjustment problems than parents of children with Down Syndrome who, in turn, reported more stress and adjustment problems than parents of developmentally normal children. Although parents of disabled children reported more stress associated with caring for their child, they generally showed resilience in adjusting to the presence of a severely disabled family member. Implications for family intervention are discussed.

Although autism can occur in conjunction with a range of other conditions, the association with Down syndrome is generally considered to be relatively rare. Four young boys with Down syndrome are described who were also autistic. All children clearly fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for autism required by the ICD-10 or DSM-IM-R, but in each case the parents had faced considerable difficulties in obtaining this diagnosis. Instead, the children's problems had been attributed to their cognitive delays, despite the fact that their behaviour and general progress differed from other children with Down syndrome in many important aspects. The implications, for both families and children, of the failure to diagnose autism when it co-occurs with other conditions such as Down syndrome are discussed. Some speculations about possible pathological associations are also presented.

Vocabulary Intervention for Children with Down Syndrome: Parent Training Using Focused Stimulation.
This study explored effects of training six mothers to use focused stimulation to teach specific target words to their toddlers with Down syndrome. Following treatment, trained mothers used the focused stimulation technique more often than mothers in the control group. Concomitantly, their children used target words more often, as reported by parents and observation of free play. (Author/DB)

Best Practice, Better Outcomes: How to write Measurable Behavioral Objectives, Goals, &, Plans

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